Compiled by Mr. Lekiningroy Dann, Senior Research Fellow, National Surveillance programme for Aquatic Animal Diseases, College of Fisheries, Central Agriclutural University(I), Lembucherra

Guided by Dr. Himadri Saha, Assistant Professor, College of Fisheries, Central Agricultural Univeristy (I), Lembucherra, Tripura(W)-799210 (email:sahacofcau@gmail.com)


  1. Common Name: Goldfish
  2. Scientific Name: Carrasius auratus
  3. Origin: First developed from the crucian carp in China
  4. Order: Cypriniformes
  5. Family: Cyprinidae
  6. Genus: Carrasius
  7. Varieties:
    1. Tail Finnage:
      1. Common tail
      2. Fantail
      3. Broadtail/ Veiltails
      4. Butterfly tail
      5. Bristol tail
      6. Curly/ coil tail
    2. Scales:
      1. Metallic scales
      2. Hammer scales
      3. Brocade sales
      4. Matt scales
      5. Narceeous scales
      6. Spangled scales
      7. Pearl scales
    3. Eyes:
      1. Bubble
      2. Frog/toad head
      3. Telescope
      4. Celestial
    4. Most Popular goldfish varieties:
      1. Common goldfish
      2. Shubunkin
      3. Ryukin
      4. Tosakin
      5. Moor
      6. Oranda
      7. Rancho
      8. Lion head
      9. Pearscale
      10. Panda
      11. tricolour oranda
      12. Pompom
      13. Caligo
  8. Distribution: Introduced throughout the world.
  9. Maximum size: 40 cm (Max); 10 cm TL (most common).
  10. Average lifespan: 10-15 years


  1. Water Type: Freshwater, brackish
  2. Water pH:5-7.5
  3. Water Temperature: 28-30ᵒC
  4. Dissolved Oxygen: >3ppm
  5. Ammonia: <1ppm
  6. Nitrite: <0.1ppm
  7. Nitrate: <1.0ppm
  8. Phosphate: 03-0.04ppm
  9. Redox potential: 4-0.5V (optimum 0.52V at 25ᵒC at 1atm)
  10. FCO2: 1.5-15ppm (optimum is 15ppm)
  11. Total Alkalinity: 50-150ppm
  12. Total Hardness: 30-180ppm
  13. Water quality testing kit:
  14. Minimum tank size: 20 gallons (75.7 L) for one goldfish


  1. Feeding behaviour: Omnivorous
  2. Diet/Feed: Almost all feeds (Good quality prepared food, fish or prawn meal, biscuit, earthworms, blood worms, Tubifex larvae and mosquito larvae, etc.)
  3. Commercial feed:
    1. Tetra Goldfish Gold Growth
    2. Optimum Fish Food
    3. Taiyo aini Fish Food
    4. Saki-hikari Fancy Goldfish
    5. Goldfish (New life spectrum)
    6. Omega one Frozen Blood worms
    7. Omega one Frozen Brine Shrimp
    8. Rapashy super gold
    9. New life Spectrum- Thera A
    10. Omnivore pellet mix, etc.
  4. Feeding frequency: 2-3 times a day 
  5. Feeding quantity: Satiation level


  1. Light intensity: Low to high
  2. Community behaviour: Aggressive and cannibalistic if underfeeding
  3. Swimming level: Non-Schooling fish
  4. Care Level: Low to medium
  5. Suitable tankmates: 
      1. Zebra Danios
      2. Rosy barbs (Not always)
      3. Apple snail
      4. Ghost shrimp and Cherry shrimp
      5. Feeder fish
      6. Plecos
      7. White cloud mountain minnow
      8. Weather loach
      9. Tropical rainbow fish
      10. Honey Gourami
      11. Swordtail fish
      12. Dwarf gourami
      13. Neon tetra
      14. Ghost Fish
      15. Bala Shark
      16. Tiger Shark
  6. Suitability with planted aquarium: Due to burrowing habit not recommended
  7. Preferred substratum: Sandy, gravel, bare bottom. All have both pros and cons
  8. Aquarium Hardiness: Hardy fish. However, different varieties have a different range of hardiness.
  9. Swimming zone in Aquarium: move all around


  1. Breeding season: 
    1. Temperate region: Summer
    2. Semitropical: Breeds twice a year (Feb-March and Sept. – Oct.)
  2. Maturity age: Second year
  3. Maturity size: 6 cm long
  4. Male Character: 
    1. Belly line: Continues from the lowest point of the belly to the base of the tail in a slight curve.
    2. Genital orifice: Small and long oval-shaped.
    3. Tubercles: During the breeding season, males develop small white tubercles on the operculum, pectoral fins, other fins (sometimes) making the body rough to touch
  5. Female Character: 
    1. Belly line: Almost circular when viewed from the top.
    2. Genital orifice: Slightly protruding, round and larger than males.
  6. Breeding behaviour: During spawning time, male will chase actively to the female for several days before spawning begins
  7. Feeds for Brooders: Good quality prepared food containing egg, soybean flour, vitamins, fish or prawn meal and biscuit and live feed like earthworm, blood worms Tubifex larvae and mosquito larvae.
  8. Breeding mode: Egg scatters having adhesive eggs
  9. Minimum Breeding Tank Size: Long shallow tank is more suitable than the short deep tank
  10. Brooder stocking ration (M:F): 2:1
  11. Spawning time: Early Morning
  12. Artificial breeding technique: 
    1. If spawning is not successful even after a few days, reducing water temperature by 2-3ºC and use of freshwater may stimulate the fish for spawning
    2. Can be induced through spawnpro
  13. Fecundity: 2500-3000 nos. of eggs per female
  14. Egg type: Adhesive
  15. Egg size: No data found. However, ovary size depends on its maturity as well as the size of the fish
  16. Egg colour: Fertilized eggs are transparent
  17. Immediate action after spawning: Remove either plants or brooders to another tank
  18. Hatching duration and temperature: Within 4 days (under ideal condition)
  19. Yolk sac absorption time: 48 hours
  20. First feeding: As soon as yolk sac is absorbed, they become free swimming, should be fed with infusoria and newly hatched brine shrimp
  21. Spawn preferred food: Artemia larvae


  1. Bacterial diseases 
      1. Fin rot
      2. Tail rot
      3. Dropsy
      4. Mouth Fungus Disease
  2. Treatment of bacteria Diseases: 
      1. Fin rot: BACTONIL
      2. Tail rot: BACTONIL
      3. Dropsy: BACTONIL
      4. Mouth Fungus Disease: BACTONIL
  3. Parasitic Diseases of Gold Fish: 
      1. Ich disease
      2. Hexamita/ Hole in the head
      3. Gill fluke
      4. Anchor worm
      5. Argulus
      6. Velvet disease
      7. Tricodiniosis
      8. Coastiasis
  4. Treatment of Parasitic Diseases of Gold Fish: 
      1. Ich disease: RID ALL ANTI-ICH
      2. Hexamita/ Hole in the head: PARACIDOL
      3. Gill fluke: PARACIDOL
      4. Anchor worm: PARACIDOL
      5. Argulus: PARACIDOL
      6. Velvet disease: PARACIDOL
      7. Tricodiniosis: PARACIDOL
      8. Coastiasis: PARACIDOL
  5. Fungal Diseases of Goldfish: 
      1. Cotton wool disease/Saprolegniasis
      2. Branchiomycosis
      3. Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS)
  6. Treatment of Fungal Diseases of Goldfish: 
      1. Cotton wool disease/Saprolegniasis: MALACHITE GREEN
      2. Branchiomycosis: MALACHITE GREEN
      3. Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS): MALACHITE GREEN
  7. Viral Diseases of Goldfish: 
      1. Lymphocystis disease
      2. Fish pox
      3. Koi Herpesvirus
  8. Treatment of Viral Diseases of Goldfish: 
      1. Lymphocystis disease: Not available
      2. Fish pox: Not available
      3. Koi Herpesvirus: Not available

The price range of goldfish in the market:

Rs 10 to 1500/- per fish depending on size and variety


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